No es una palabra bonita, pero sí conocida y ampliamente extendida. Su origen etimológico es incierto, ya que se trata de un término que ha estado más bien presente en el lenguaje hablado y no tanto en el escrito. Por ello, existen varias teorías en torno a la procedencia de la palabra ‘fuck’.
Según cuenta la leyenda más esparcida, durante la peste negra que tuvo lugar en la Edad Media, en la antigua Inglaterra se procedió a un estricto control de la población con el fin de minimizar el contagio. Las parejas requerían de un permiso para mantener relaciones sexuales y cuando deseaban tener un hijo debían solicitárselo al Rey, quien les entregaba una placa que debían colgar en la puerda de los hogares mientras se relacionaban. La placa decía ‘Fornication Under Consent of the King’ –F.U.C.K.-; es decir, ‘fornicación bajo el consentimiento del Rey’.
Entre las demás versiones que explican el origen de ‘fuck’ podemos encontrar la que sostiene que la mencionada placa era utilizada en los prostíbulos para demostrar su legalidad, o la que defiende que su significado es ‘Forced Unlawful Carnal Knowledge’, que viene a decir algo así como ‘conocimiento de relación carnal forzada e ilegal’, y que la llevaban los convictos por violación sexual.
William Dunbar‘s 1503 poem “Brash of Wowing” includes the lines: “Yit be his feiris he wald haue fukkit: / Ye brek my hairt, my bony ane” (ll. 13–14).
John Florio‘s 1598 Italian-English dictionary, A Worlde of Wordes, included the term, along with several now-archaic, but then-vulgar synonyms, in this definition:
- Fottere: To jape, to sard, to fucke, to swive, to occupy.
Of these, “occupy” and “jape” still survive as verbs, though with less profane meanings, while “sard” was a descendant of the Anglo-Saxon verb seordan (or seorðan, <ON serða), to copulate; and “swive” had derived from earlier swīfan, to revolve i.e. to swivel (compare modern-day “screw”).
While Shakespeare never used the term explicitly; he hinted at it in comic scenes in a few plays. The Merry Wives of Windsor (IV.i) contains the expression focative case (seevocative case). In Henry V (IV.iv), Pistol threatens to firk (strike) a soldier, a euphemism for fuck.
Rise of modern usage
Though it appeared in John Ash‘s 1775 A New and Complete Dictionary, listed as “low” and “vulgar,” and appearing with several definitions, fuck did not appear in any widely-consulted dictionary of the English language from 1795 to 1965. Its first appearance in the Oxford English Dictionary (along with the word cunt) was in 1972. There is anecdotal evidence of its use during the American Civil War.
Most literally, to fuck is to copulate, but it is also used as a more general expletive or intensifier. Some instances of the word can be taken at face value, such as “Let’s fuck,” “I would fuck her/him,” or “He/she fucks.” Other uses are dysphemistic: The sexual connotation, usually connected to masturbation (in the case of “go fuck yourself” or “go fuck yourself in the ass”), is invoked to incite additional disgust, or express anger or outrage. For example, “Fuck that!”, “Fuck no!”, “Fuck off!”, or “Fuck you!” By itself, fuck is usually used as an exclamation, indicating surprise, pain, fear, disgust, disappointment, anger, or a sense of extreme elation. In this usage, there is no connection to the sexual meaning of the word implied, and is used purely for its “strength” as a vulgarity. Additionally, other uses are similarly vacuous; fuck (or variations such as the fuck or fucking) could be removed and leave a sentence of identical syntactical meaning. For example, rap music often uses the word fucking as an emphatic adjective (“I’m the fucking man”) for the word’s rhythmicproperties.
Insertion of the trochaic word fucking can also be used as an exercise for diagnosing the cadence of an English-language word. This is the use of fuck or more specifically fuckingas an infix, or more properly, a tmesis (see expletive infixation). For example, the word in-fucking-credible sounds acceptable to the English ear, and is in fairly common use, whileincred-fucking-ible would sound very clumsy (though, depending on the context, this might be perceived as a humorous improvisation of the word). Abso-fucking-lutely andmotherfucking are also common uses of fuck as an affix. While neither dysphemistic nor connected to the sexual connotations of the word, even the vacuous usages are considered offensive and gratuitous, and censored in some media; for example, “None of your fucking business!” or “Shut the fuck up!” A common insult is “Get fucked”, which in a non-offensive context would translate as “get stuffed.” The word is one of the few that has legitimate colloquial usage as a verb, adverb, adjective, command, conjunction,exclamatory, noun and pronoun.
In another usage, the word fucker is used as a term of endearment rather than antipathy. This usage is not uncommon; to say “you’re one smart fucker” is often a term of affection. However, because of its ambiguity and vulgarity, the word fucker in reference to another person can easily be misinterpreted. Though fuck can serve as a noun, the fucker form is used in a context that refers to an individual. Normally in these cases, if fuck is used instead of fucker, the sentence refers to the sexual ability of the subject (for example, “He’s a great fuck!”), although confusingly in a minority of occasions the word “fuck” can hold exactly the same meaning as fucker (e.g., when preceded by an adjective: “You’re a pretty clever fuck.”).
A more succinct example of the flexibility of the word is its use as almost every word in a sentence. In his book, Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War,Paul Fussell, literary historian and professor emeritus of English literature at the University of Pennsylvania, recounted
Once, on a misty Scottish airfield, an airman was changing the magneto on the engine of a Wellington bomber. Suddenly his wrench slipped and he flung it on the grass and snarled, “Fuck! The fucking fucker’s fucked.” The bystanders were all quite well aware that he had stripped a bolt and skinned his knuckles.
The phrase “Fuck you, you fucking fuck!” is a memorable quote from the movie Blue Velvet from 1986, and is still used today as heard in Strapping Young Lad’s “You Suck” from their 2006 album The New Black. Another example is “Fuck the fucking fuckers!” Because of its vulgar status, the word fuck is usually restricted in mass media and barred from titles in the United States. In 2002, when the controversial French film Baise-moi (2000) was released in the US, its title was changed to Rape Me, rather than the literal Fuck Me, though this may have been for effect. Similarly, the Swedish film Fucking Åmål was retitled Show Me Love.
Online forums and public blogs may censor the word by use of automatic filters. For example, Fark.com replaces the word fuck with fark. Others replace the word with asterisks(****) to censor it (and other profanities) entirely. To avert these filters, many online posters will use the word fvck. This particular alteration is in common usage at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology, where students use it in reference to the inscriptions on MIT’s neoclassical buildings, in which the letter U is replaced by V. A typical coinage in this idiom would be “I’m fvcked by the Institvte.” (Other less common spellings to cheat a censor are “fück” and “phuck”.) Another way to bypass a word filter is to useleet: fuck becomes F(_) c|< or |=(_)Ck, for example.
The word fuck is a component of many acronyms, some of which—like SNAFU and FUBAR—date as far back as World War II. Many more recent coinages, such as the shorthand “WTF?” for “what the fuck?,” “STFU” for “shut the fuck up,” or “FML” for “fuck my life,” have been widely extant on the Internet, and may count as examples of memes. Many acronyms will also have an “F” or “MF” added to increase emphasis; for example, “OMG” (“oh my God“) becomes “OMFG” (“oh my fucking God”). Abbreviated versions of the word tend not to be considered as offensive. Despite the proclaimed vulgarity of the word, several comedians rely on fuck for comedic routines. George Carlin created several literary works based upon the word. Other comedians who use or used the word consistently in their routines include Billy Connolly, Denis Leary, Lewis Black, Andrew Dice Clay, Chris Rock, Richard Pryor, Eddie Murphy, and Sam Kinison.